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By Jaya Ramji-Nogales

Welcoming Noura Erakat

It's our great pleasure today to welcome Noura Erakat (right) as an IntLawGrrls contributor.
Noura, a human rights attorney and writer, is currently a Freedman Teaching Fellow at my home institution, Temple University, Beasley School of Law in Philadelphia.  She is also the US-based Legal Advocacy Coordinator for Badil Center for Palestinian Refugee and Residency Rights.
Noura has taught International Human Rights Law and the Middle East at Georgetown University since Spring 2009. Most recently, she served as Legal Counsel for a congressional subcommittee chaired by U.S. Rep. Dennis J. Kucinich (D-Ohio).
She has helped to initiate and organize several national formations, including Arab Women Arising for Justice and the U.S. Palestinian Community Network.
Noura has appeared on Fox’s “The O’ Reilly Factor,” NBC’s “Politically Incorrect,” MSNBC, Democracy Now, and Al-Jazeera Arabic and English. Her publications include: "Litigating the Arab-Israeli Conflict: The Politicization of U.S. Federal Courts" in the Berkeley Law Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Law, "BDS in the USA: 2001-2010," in the Middle East Report, and "U.S. vs. ICRC-Customary International Humanitarian Law and Universal Jurisdiction," forthcoming in the Denver Journal of International Law & Policy. She is a Co-Editor of Jadaliyya.com. You can follow her on Twitter at @4noura.
Noura's introductory post below responds to comments on the doctrine of responsibility to protect delivered by Patricia O'Brien, Under-Secretary for Legal Affairs and United Nations Legal Counsel, at the American Society of International Law Midyear Meeting earlier this month. In an IntLawGrrls post yesterday, Patricia (who'd posted on the same issue this past spring) contributed those remarks in full.
Noura dedicates her post to Hoda Shaarawi (1879-1947), an Egyptian feminist leader and the first Egyptian advocate of women’s rights. In Noura's words:
'She strove to raise awareness among Egyptian women, calling on them to claim their rights. Not only did she study in Europe and accompany her husband to many political meetings, but in 1923 she removed her face veil in public. She led the first women's first street demonstration, the first women's social service organization, and published the first feminist magazine.'
Today, Shaarawi (left) joins our list of transnational foremothers.
Heartfelt welcome!

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Welcoming Julie Ayling

It's our great pleasure today to welcome Julie Ayling (right) as an IntLawGrrls contributor.
Julie is a Research Fellow in the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Policing and Security based in the Regulatory Institutions Network at the Australian National University in Canberra. Before joining the Regulatory Institutions Network in 2003, she worked for many years as a senior government lawyer, on issues of international law and communications law.
Her research interests include policing, transnational crime, criminal groups and state responses.
Among her publications is the book Lengthening the Arm of the Law: Enhancing Police Resources in the Twenty-First Century (2009), co-authored with with Professors Peter Grabosky, of Australian National University, and Clifford Shearing, of the University of Cape Town. In 2010, Julie won the Australian and New Zealand Society of Criminology New Scholar Prize for her article "Criminal Organizations and Resilience," published in the International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice in 2009.

Julie recently spent time as a visiting fellow at the European University Institute in Florence, Italy. She holds a BALLB degree with first class honours from Macquarie University in Sydney, and a Master of International Law degree from Australian National University.
She dedicates her post to Judith Wright (1915-2000), an Australian poet, author, and environmental and indigenous rights activist. Wright was founder and later president of the Wildlife Preservation Society of Queensland, fighting for conservation of the Great Barrier Reef when oil drilling was proposed, and campaigning against sand-mining on Fraser Island, the largest sand island in the world. She also campaigned tirelessly for the rights of Aboriginal Australians. In Julie's words:
Judith Wright
'To me Judith Wright personifies persistence in the face of opposition and personal difficulties (amongst other things, she suffered deteriorating hearing loss and near blindness).  Judith’s writing was inspired by the country in which she lived. One of her constant themes was the relationship between humans and their environment. She believed that the written word has the power to alter perceptions and she put this conviction into practice.'
Julie's introductory post below aims to shape perceptions about the illicit trade in black rhinoceros horns.
Heartfelt welcome!

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Welcoming Janine Lespérance

It's our great pleasure today to welcome Janine Lespérance (left) as an IntLawGrrls contributor.
Janine is in her final year of the M.A./J.D. program offered by the University of Ottawa Faculty of Law in conjunction with the Norman Paterson School of International Affairs of Carleton University. She is specializing in international law, and Conflict Analysis and Resolution, and has specific interests in post-conflict justice and corporate accountability. She earned her undergraduate degree from St. Francis Xavier University.
Janine has worked as a legal intern at the Bufete Jurídico Popular de Rabinal (Rabinal Community Legal Clinic) in Guatemala, as a research assistant at the Human Rights Research and Education Centre in Ottawa, and as a volunteer cooperant for Lawyers Without Borders Canada in the internal armed conflict section of the Guatemalan Ministerio Público. Recently, she received a University of Ottawa Public Interest Fellowship in Human Rights to support her work for Amnesty International Canada and the Canadian Centre for International Justice.
Her personal observations respecting the ongoing Mungwarere genocide trial in Canada, which she monitored for CCIJ, are recounted in Janine's introductory post below.
Heartfelt welcome!

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Welcoming Aoife O'Donoghue

It's our great pleasure today to welcome Dr. Aoife O'Donoghue (left) as an IntLawGrrls contributor.
Aoife has been a lecturer at Durham Law School since 2007.  She specializes in public international law, with a specific interest in international governance. Aoife's current research focuses on international constitutionalization and the legal structures that have developed within international law to regulate governance.
Aoife received her Ph.D. from the University of Groningen in the Netherlands; her dissertation examined the constitutionalization of international law. Aoife earned her bachelor's degree from University College Cork, and completed an LL.M in International Law at City University, London.
With another IntLawGrrls contributor, Dr. Máiréad Enright, now of Kent Law School, Aoife is a Co-Director of the Irish Feminist Judgments Project. Aoife is also co-convenor of the Law and Conflict at Durham research cluster.
In her introductory post below, Aoife continues our series reflecting on the twenty-first anniversary of the publication of Feminist Approaches to International Law, which Hilary Charlesworth, Christine Chinkin, and Shelley Wright published in the American Journal of International Law.
Heartfelt welcome! 

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October Treat: Celebrating Feminist Approaches to International Law by Charlesworth, Chinkin & Wright

(1st in a series celebrating "Feminist Approaches to International Law")

It's IntLawGrrls' great pleasure today to kick off a celebration of the 21st anniversary of "Feminist Approaches to International Law." This seminal article by Hilary Charlesworth, Christine Chinkin, and Shelley Wright was published by the American Journal of International Law in its October 1991 issue.
Just as we at IntLawGrrls honor our transnational foremothers in order to draw attention to women's oft-overlooked contributions to international law and policy, this month we celebrate the crucial role that this article has played in opening up space for women's voices in the international arena.
Over the next few weeks, we will welcome posts from several leading female international law scholars, each of whom will reflect on Feminist Approaches and its impact on her work.  Our list of participants includes IntLawGrrls contributors Doris Buss, Fiona de Londras, Sari Kouvo, and Fionnuala Ní Aoláin.  We also welcome a new IntLawGrrl, Aoife O'Donoghue and will end the series with a contribution from the article's authors, Charlesworth, Chinkin, and Wright.  We begin the celebration today by offering a couple of thoughts on the article's ongoing contribution to the field of international law.
In Feminist Approachesawarded the 1992 Francis Deák Prize by the American Society of International Law – Charlesworth, Chinkin, and Wright set forth numerous valuable critiques of international law and organizations. Here we focus on 2:
► Rendering women's perspectives visible in international law; and
► Promoting diversity of women's voices.

Visibility
Though we've made progress on both counts, women's work, to these ends, is not done. Despite substantial female interest and talent in the field, international law has long been dominated by male voices. There remains today a gender gap in the American international legal academy.
One measurement worth considering is women's leadership and participation in the American Society of International Law.
Early on, ASIL rejected applications from women like Belva Ann Lockwood, the 1st to argue before the U.S. Supreme Court, and Jane Addams, who would go on to win the Nobel Peace Prize. (Both have been honored as IntLawGrrls foremothers.) The Society admitted women as members in 1920, just as the 19th Amendment guaranteeing women's vote took effect.
A half-century later, Dr. Alona Evans (left) – a Wellesley professor who, as previously posted, was the 1st woman elected to the AJIL board and would become ASIL’s first woman president – published an article in a 1974 edition of AJIL. In it, she and her co-author, Carol Per Lee Plumb, assessed women's involvement in the Society. Their findings:
From 1943 to 1973, women constituted 6% to 7% of ASIL’s annual membership. During this period, there were only 2 female officers of the Society. From 1960 to 1973, only 21 women in total presented talks at the Society’s annual conference. From 1927 to 1973, women published only 30 articles in the AJIL, and in 1974 only 2 of the Journal’s 24 editors, or 8%, were women.
By way of comparison, IntLawGrrls' current findings:
As of 2012, according to the most recent information available on the Society's website, 27 out of 63, or 43%, of the its Executive Council are female. Since 1974, of 20 ASIL Presidents, 4, or 20%, have been women. (They include an IntLawGrrls contributor, Lucy Reed.) Seven of 25, or 28%, of the editors of AJIL are currently female. At this year’s annual conference, we counted 101 women presenting talks. In short, women have moved, from invisible to somewhat visible, within the Society and its principal publication. 
The gender consciousness raised by Feminist Approaches and the literature that followed has inspired efforts to increase gender diversity at ASIL and elsewhere in the field of international law.  But we've yet to attain full equality.
We resist in particular the “pink ghetto” phenomenon that attaches to certain subfields of international law. (It's a concern about which IntLawGrrls contributor Leila Nadya Sadat wrote a thoughtful article in the special issue of the International Criminal Law Review that IntLawGrrls edited last year.) While many of us research and write in the areas of international criminal law and international human rights law, we note that, like many women in the field, these are not our only areas of specialization. IntLawGrrls blog boasts female experts in fields ranging from military law to international investment and trade law, to international legal theory.  As with gender representation at ASIL, we've seen progress in the form of greater inclusion of female voices at international law conferences in a variety of subfields, but gender gaps persist.
 
Diversity
We also aim to extend international legal discourse beyond American voices.
As Charlesworth, Chinkin, and Wright note in Feminist Approaches:
'[A] diversity of voices is not only valuable, but essential, and . . . the search for, or belief in, one view, one voice is unlikely to capture the reality of women’s experience. . .'
We at IntLawGrrls believe the same to be true for men’s experiences – notwithstanding that, in the United States at least, there is a tendency for American navel-gazing to pass for international dialogue.
If the discourse of international law is to live up to the name of, well, international law, our field must include in the conversation perspectives from every continent, class, ethnic or other group, sexual orientation, and gender.
Our blog will continue to try to expand the field beyond its current confines, taking up the challenge that Hilary Charlesworth (bottom right), Christine Chinkin (upper right), and Shelley Wright put to all of us more than 20 years ago.

We welcome posts from IntLawGrrls contributors and readers on the impact that Feminist Approaches has had on your work.  Please contact us at intlawgrrls@gmail.com if you are interested in contributing to our celebration of this article.

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